LX Research

Why do beliefs about intelligence influence learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience model

Students’ beliefs and goals can powerfully influence their learning success. Those who believe intelligence is a fixed entity (entity theorists) tend to emphasize ‘performance goals,’ leaving them vulnerable to negative feedback and likely to disengage from challenging learning opportunities. In contrast, students who believe intelligence is malleable (incremental theorists) tend to emphasize ‘learning goals’ and rebound better from occasional failures. These results suggest that beliefs can influence learning success through top–down biasing of attention and conceptual processing toward goal-congruent information.

Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

learning environmentinstructional strategyk-12cognition

The Elusive Backfire Effect: Mass Attitudes’ Steadfast Factual Adherence

Evidence of factual backfire is far more tenuous than prior research suggests. By and large, citizens heed factual information, even when such information challenges their ideological commitments.

Political Behavior, Advance Online Publication

instructional strategycognition

The effects of feedback interventions on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory

The identification of a number of moderators suggests that in certain situations, feedback interventions (FIs) can yield a large and positive effect on performance. Specifically, a feedback intervention provided for a familiar task, containing cues that support learning, attracting attention to feedback-standard discrepancies at the task level (velocity FI and goal setting), and is void of cues to the metatask level (e.g., cues that direct attention to the self) is likely to yield impressive gains in performance.

Psychological Bulletin, 119(2), 254–284

performance supportinstructional strategy

Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

Undergraduate students in classes with traditional stand-and-deliver lectures are 1.5 times more likely to fail than students in classes that use more stimulating, so-called active learning methods.

PNAS June 10, 2014

higher edinstructional strategymemory

Optimal Video Length for Student Engagement

The optimal video length is 6 minutes or shorter — students watched most of the way through these short videos. In fact, the average engagement time of any video maxes out at 6 minutes, regardless of its length. And engagement times decrease as videos lengthen.


higher edinstructional strategymediamemory

Listening to Narratives: An Experimental Examination of Storytelling in the Classroom

Audience members retain more information when it is presented in a narrative style and when it is presented at a normal presentation rate.

International Journal Of Listening, 28(1), 32-46.

memorylearning environment

Breaking the Cycle of Mistrust: Wise Interventions to Provide Critical Feedback Across the Racial Divide

In Studies 1 and 2, 7th-grade students received critical feedback from their teacher that, in the treatment condition, was designed to assuage mistrust byemphasizing the teacher’s high standards and belief that the student was capable of meeting thosestandards—a strategy known aswise feedback. Wise feedback increased students’ likelihood of submit-ting a revision of an essay (Study 1) and improved the quality of their final drafts (Study 2).

Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2014, Vol. 143, No. 2, 804–824

instructional strategyk-12learning environmentassessment

A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Instructional Effectiveness of Computer‐Base Simulation Games

A University of Colorado Denver Business School study found those trained on video games do their jobs better, have higher skills and retain information longer than workers learning in less interactive, more passive environments.

Personnel Psychology Volume 64, Issue 2, Summer 2011, Pages 489-528


Development and use of the ARCS model of instructional design

ARCS Model of motivation contains a four category synthesis of variables that encompasses most of the areas of research on human motivation, and a motivational design process that is compatible with typical instructional design models. Following its development, the ARCS Model was field tested in two inservice teacher education programs. Based on the results of these field tests, the ARCS Model appears to provide useful assistance to designers and teachers, and warrants more controlled studies of its critical attributes and areas of effectiveness.

Journal of Instructional Development

instructional strategyassessmentlearning environment

A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of Computer Games as Learning Tools

The effects of computer-based games on learning are positive. When analyzing research results of the 65 out of the 89 studies that specifically examined the effectives of computer-based games on learning, researches found a significant positive impact for computer-based games as compared with conventional instruction 52% of the time.

Effective Electronic Gaming in Education (Vol. 1, pp. 1-32).

mediainstructional strategy

A gender matching effect in learning with pedagogical agents in an immersive virtual reality science simulation

The teacher is just as important in a virtual learning environment as in a normal classroom, but a new study shows that boys and girls differ greatly in terms of how they learn best: Boys learn best when their virtual teacher comes in the form of a drone, while girls get more knowledge from VR-teaching when they are taught by a young, female researcher-type named Marie.

Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 2018

learning environmentmediak-12

Andragogy: An Emerging Technology for Adult Learning

Andragogy refers to a theory of adult learning that details some of the ways in which adults learn differently than children. For example, adults tend to be more self-directed, internally motivated, and ready to learn. Teachers can draw on concepts of andragogy to increase the effectiveness of their adult education classes.

Education for Adults: Volume 1 Adult Learning and Education

instructional strategyassessmentlearning environment

Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory

Carefully structured training in working memory — the kind that allows memorization of a telephone number just long enough to dial it — can help improve fluid intelligence.

PNAS April 25, 2008


Inducing effort with behavioural intervention

Monetary incentives are strong motivators, non-monetary psychological inducements are moderately effective, and results using behavioural factors are generally consistent with models of social and time preferences.

Vox EU

learning environmentinstructional strategy

Multi-tasking Adversely Affects Brain's Learning

Multi-tasking affects the brain's learning systems, and as a result, we do not learn as well when we are distracted. The study shows that to the degree you can learn while multi-tasking, you will use different brain systems.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences(PNAS)

practicelearning environment

Success factors for serious games to enhance learning: a systematic review

Reveals five central serious game themes: backstory and production; realism; artificial intelligence and adaptivity; interaction; and feedback and debriefing, all of which require deliberate intertwining with pedagogical content to ensure successful learning.

Virtual Reality, 21(1), 31–58

mediapracticeinstructional strategy

Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas

Depth of Knowledge or DoK is another type of framework used to identify the level of rigor for an assessment. In 1997, Dr. Norman Webb developed the DoK to categorize activities according to the level of complexity in thinking. The creation of the DoK stemmed from the alignment of standards to assessments. Standardized assessments measured how students think about a content and the procedures learned but did not measure how deeply students must understand and be aware of a learning so they can explain answers and provide solutions, as well as transfer what was learned in real world contexts.

instructional strategycognitionk-12

Applying Learning Analytics for the Early Prediction of Students' Academic Performance in Blended Learning

The results show that learners’ engagement with the content, exercises and mentoring of a blended learning environment, final academic performance could be predicted when only one-third of the course had elapsed. Furthermore, the blended data set combining online and traditional critical factors (including face-to-face mentoring after class) resulted in the best learner performance.

Journal of Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 21, No. 2 (April 2018), pp. 220-232

learning environmentanalyticshigher ed

The Effects of Interleaved Practice

Children practiced four kinds of mathematics problems in an order that was interleaved or blocked, and the degree of spacing was fixed. Interleaving of practice impaired practice session performance yet doubled scores on a test given one day later. An analysis of the errors suggested that interleaving boosted test scores by improving participants' ability to pair each problem with the appropriate procedure.

Applied Cognitive Psychology 24(6):837 - 848 · September 2010


Higher academic performance in an Asian University : replacing traditional lecturing with blended learning

The mean of academic performance achieved in blended learning is higher than that in traditional lecturing; furthermore, traditional lecturing can be eliminated from higher education without diminishing the learning. Attendance is increased significantly, and appears to be a very effective deep learning approach.

Nanyang Technological University Library, Singapore.

learning environmentassessmenthigher ed

Integrating educational knowledge: reactivation of prior knowledge during educational learning enhances memory integration

Reactivation of prior knowledge during new learning and congruency of prior knowledge with new learning are beneficial to memory formation.

npj Science of Learningvolume 3, Article number: 11 (2018)

memoryhigher edcognitioninstructional strategy

Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching

Although unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, these approaches ignore both the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture and evidence from empirical studies over the past half-century that consistently indicate that minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process.

Educational Psychologist, 41:2, 75-86

instructional strategycognitionk-12

Blended Learning for Programming Courses: A Case Study of Outcome Based Teaching & Learning

Blended learning provides great flexibility to both teaching and learning of computer programming. Students' academic results greatly improved with the introduction of a blended learning model to a programming course.

Workshop on Blended Learning 2007

learning environmenthigher ed

The learning benefits of teaching: A retrieval practice hypothesis

Teaching educational materials to others enhances the teacher's own learning of those to‐be‐taught materials, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The learning‐by‐teaching benefit is possibly a retrieval benefit.

Applied Cognitive Psychology Volume 32, Issue 3, May/June 2018, Pages 401-410

memoryhigher edcognition

Linkages between course status, perceived course value, and students’ preference for traditional versus non-traditional learning environments

Overall, students preferred traditional classes across all course statuses and justified their choices by citing them as engaging and interactive. Across all students, perceptions of the usefulness and importance of each course status did not significantly influence their selection of a specific learning environment. Collectively, these findings have ramifications for understanding factors that impact students’ responses to online learning environments.

Computers & Education, Volume 125, October 2018, Pages 175-181

learning environmenthigher ed

The Effects of Overlearning and Distributed Practise on the Retention of Mathematics Knowledge

Long-term retention of mathematics knowledge was boosted by distributed practise and unaffected by overlearning.

Applied Cognitive Psychology Vol 20: 1209–1224 (2006)

memoryhigher edpracticeinstructional strategy

Using Videos in Blended Learning: Pitfalls and Success Factors

Training outcomes are improved and learners feel more empowered if they have full control over their video, including the ability to pause, replay and skip through content. Pitfalls of using video in blended learning include technical challenges, extra time required (to create recorded videos and host live interactive sessions), camera shyness and risks to learner privacy. To improve effectiveness, videos should have the capacity for evaluation and timely adjustment to accommodate learner feedback and update content.

Innovations in Open and Flexible Education, pp 185-202

learning environmentmediahigher ed

Videos Not the Magic Bullet for Online Teaching

Although many guidelines recommend relying heavily on instructional videos for online courses, this analysis indicates many students tend to shun videos in favor of traditional text instructions. But not all students avoid videos, so the conclusion is that the key to successful learning outcomes is to provide both platforms for the students.

Teaching Journalism & Mass Communication

technologymedialearning environmenthigher ed

Experiences in Introducing Blended Learning in an Introductory Programming Course

Though programming exercises can be efficiently tested against expected output, the assessment systems often only deliver feedback regarding the correctness and sometimes additionally which test cases fail. But so far, these systems are not able to identify the reason for the error. Therefore, there should also be human tutors available with which students can discuss their solution and which can help them in identifying their misconceptions.

ECSEE'18 Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference of Software Engineering Education

higher edassessmentlearning environment