LX Research


Why do beliefs about intelligence influence learning success? A social cognitive neuroscience model

Students’ beliefs and goals can powerfully influence their learning success. Those who believe intelligence is a fixed entity (entity theorists) tend to emphasize ‘performance goals,’ leaving them vulnerable to negative feedback and likely to disengage from challenging learning opportunities. In contrast, students who believe intelligence is malleable (incremental theorists) tend to emphasize ‘learning goals’ and rebound better from occasional failures. These results suggest that beliefs can influence learning success through top–down biasing of attention and conceptual processing toward goal-congruent information.

Mindset: The New Psychology of Success

The Elusive Backfire Effect: Mass Attitudes’ Steadfast Factual Adherence

Evidence of factual backfire is far more tenuous than prior research suggests. By and large, citizens heed factual information, even when such information challenges their ideological commitments.

Political Behavior, Advance Online Publication

A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Instructional Effectiveness of Computer‐Base Simulation Games

A University of Colorado Denver Business School study found those trained on video games do their jobs better, have higher skills and retain information longer than workers learning in less interactive, more passive environments.

Personnel Psychology Volume 64, Issue 2, Summer 2011, Pages 489-528

Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory

Carefully structured training in working memory — the kind that allows memorization of a telephone number just long enough to dial it — can help improve fluid intelligence.

PNAS April 25, 2008

Depth-of-Knowledge Levels for Four Content Areas

Depth of Knowledge or DoK is another type of framework used to identify the level of rigor for an assessment. In 1997, Dr. Norman Webb developed the DoK to categorize activities according to the level of complexity in thinking. The creation of the DoK stemmed from the alignment of standards to assessments. Standardized assessments measured how students think about a content and the procedures learned but did not measure how deeply students must understand and be aware of a learning so they can explain answers and provide solutions, as well as transfer what was learned in real world contexts.

Integrating educational knowledge: reactivation of prior knowledge during educational learning enhances memory integration

Reactivation of prior knowledge during new learning and congruency of prior knowledge with new learning are beneficial to memory formation.

npj Science of Learningvolume 3, Article number: 11 (2018)

Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching

Although unguided or minimally guided instructional approaches are very popular and intuitively appealing, these approaches ignore both the structures that constitute human cognitive architecture and evidence from empirical studies over the past half-century that consistently indicate that minimally guided instruction is less effective and less efficient than instructional approaches that place a strong emphasis on guidance of the student learning process.

Educational Psychologist, 41:2, 75-86

The learning benefits of teaching: A retrieval practice hypothesis

Teaching educational materials to others enhances the teacher's own learning of those to‐be‐taught materials, although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The learning‐by‐teaching benefit is possibly a retrieval benefit.

Applied Cognitive Psychology Volume 32, Issue 3, May/June 2018, Pages 401-410